INTRODUCTION TO GEMSTONES
The gemstone is a mineral or a rock which is used in making jewelry after its proper cutting. Gemstones look like pebbles and rocks but after cutting them properly, they signify beauty. There are many gemstones that have little beauty in their rough state.
Gemstones are nowadays considered an essential commodity in today’s market. In Ancient times, there were no gemstones but nowadays, gemstones are quite popular and people can easily afford them.
THE FIVE FORMATION CATEORIES OF GEMSTONESG
Natural gemstones are formed in nature, with no interaction of the humans. They will form in different environments from several chemical compositions. They will appear in jewelry after proper cut and polish. But they can not be treated as altered.
The Genuine gemstones are also natural gemstones, they are commonly treated to enhance the large percentage of appearance of the jewelry manufacturing in the market.
Synthetic gemstones are natural stones that have physical and chemical quality, and are created in a laboratory. The synthetic version of almost all gemstones is available in the market. Synthetic Gemstones are natural, but they are difficult to identify, they can be identified by the professional jeweler or gemologist only.
IMITATION OR SIMULATED GEMSTONES
These gemstones are natural gemstones, but they do not have chemical compositions and physical characteristics. They are usually less expensive, compared with others. They are made up of glass and plastic material and can be caught up easily by the jeweler.
Several techniques are used by the peoples to improve the appearance of Gemstones. The oldest method to improve the color of the gemstone is heat treatment. But nowadays, there are many techniques to improve the appearance of gemstones, be they by Laser, Heating or by other procedures. Lasers are mostly used to drill the hole in the stone. Some techniques are permanent and some are temporary. For e.g. Drilling is a permanent solution whereas strains, heating solutions, leaks are some temporary solutions. Gemstone’s brilliance is enhanced because of the increasing demand for the gemstones in the recent market.
WHAT MAKES A GEMSTONE UNIQUE
There are mainly six things which make gemstone look unique, desirable and attractive so that everyone loves them. These things are- Beauty in gemstone, Rarity, Durability, Fashion, Personal taste, and Attractive properties. All these are the characteristics that are required to make a gemstone look unique, Attractive, and Desirable.
A gemstone must have beautiful colors so that people will attract to it. Beauty can not only be described by color but also by shape, size, proper cuts, etc. The gemstone must sparkle through refracting, reflecting, dispersing light. Beauty is further divided into four types, they are Size, Color, Shape, Sparkle.
The most important characteristic of a gem to look beautiful is an attractive color. If the color of Gem is not on the mark of choice, then the beauty of the gem can somewhere be lost. Gemstones like Emerald, Ruby, Amethyst, and Sapphire are attractive only because of their color, which attracts everyone. Diamonds that are colorless are less in demand while compared with the colored ones. There are some colors which are high preference colors, as everyone loves them and some other colors have high attention from people. The blue color is one of the high preference colors among all the colors.
Stone sparkle consists of four things- Facetting, Dispersion, Reflection, and Refraction.
Facetting refers to the number of facets present in the gemstone and if facets are placed properly, then sparkles beauty will enhance. Dispersion refers to the difference between the refraction of different colors of light. A dispersive material that has high split light into its component color gives the color PRISM which shows RAINBOW. Dispersion is also known as fire.
Reflection refers to the stones which reflect light from the surface. Light reflection will depend upon surface reflectivity. Refraction refers to the material of refracted light on alter angles.
If the size of the gemstone is large then it magnifies beauty, a proper size matters a lot in the gemstone. If the size is larger, then it has greater desirability. It is necessary for a gemstone to be bigger in size, to be fitted in jewelry, as a small one doesn’t look attractive in jewelry while compared with the larger one. A small gemstone will be the choice of Gemologist only because of rarity.
Shape matters a lot in a gemstone as some preferred heart shape, some preferred round shape, hence everyone has their own choices. There are some stones that are typical in shape, but they can be cut in their desired shape. Every cut has its own and different shape which attracts people a lot towards it and has its different style of cutting and has its own beauty.
Durability refers to the perfect place of a stone, where a stone may appear on jewelry and looks durable. Durability and Hardness are not the same things. For e.g. try a rubber ball and a bouncing glass bottle, then you realize that the glass is harder than the rubber and the glass bottle smashes. A gemstone has considerable durability while diamonds are considerably indestructible and so on. It is a must know about the durability of a stone to make the jewelry look perfect.
MOHs hardness is the best way to know about the hardness of scale, except this also there are many ways by which hardness can be measured but, MOHs scale is one of the best methods to know about it. MOH’s scale has a list of 10 minerals on its scale from number 1 to 10. As diamond is the hardest naturally occurring substance, so it is shown as number 10 on MOHs scale. Quartz and Amethyst have been listed as number 7 in the scale, as it is the softest material referred by the professional jewelers. Emerald is listed as 7.5 on the scale because of its hardness. The gemstones which are colorless or transparent have listed on almost 5 to 5.5 on the scale because they do not scratch surfaces because of transparency.
According to professional jewelers, rarity is very necessary for the demand of the gemstone. A gemstone will be attractive and beautiful only because of its rarity in the market. The products which are rare have good demand and need in the market, and they are usually expensive, compared with the others because of their demand. Sometimes, you can find rare gems at a cheap price also. The status of a gemstone will also increase because of its rarity. According to some mineral collectors, the value of rare gems is more than the value of other gems, whether they are precious or not.
NATURAL, SYNTHETIC, OR SIMULANT?
Some jewelers and their customers have thought that wearing some natural gemstone accessories can give their look an ambitious look. But some people do not wholly agree with that. They think that rarity can attract them, and expensive gemstones give them the best look. But some do not believe in this also, they think that nothing can make synthetic and simulant it just about the thinking. It’s been up to 7000 years, of the simulants of gemstones and in 1905 synthetic ruby has been produced by the people and spinel in 1908, sapphire in 1911. Pearls are also the stimulant which is produced by the natural process introduced by the human. Cultured pearl has been produced by Oyster by inserting the bead into the oyster. The Oyster has to coat the bead with nacre, and from that natural form is produced. It is difficult to sell the higher priced diamonds to the customer, who doesn’t know about the quality of the gem. So it is natural for some jewelers to threaten progress. There is a huge difference between synthetic, natural, and simulated because not all the stimulants are known as synthetic and, not all the synthetics are called stimulants.
Fashion plays an important role in pursuing the material which has been regarded as a gemstone. In the latest trend, moon rock is rare to find and also looks unattractive but earlier it would be regarded as fashionable and regardable in a gemstone. Nowadays, ivory is also not in fashion as a gemstone. Yellow and brown diamonds are regarded as colorless diamonds because they do not attract people. People believe that colored diamonds are going to become our next jewelry fashion trend. Diamond is not much appreciated in England, but other countries loved them.
With special properties, people include some social effects and possible health by wearing the gems stone. There are some categories which include this. They are- Health, Religion, Superstition, and Social customs. These superstitions have their own explanation.
For since very long, it has been believed that wearing some gemstones and minerals can create a person’s good health and amethyst. But now a days this has come to the notice that there are many claims which have non faceted crystals, and they can produce vibrations that protect the wearer from the radiation around them. But the peoples of the current era have to be cynical but tolerant and open minded about all these claims.
There are some bishops, who wear a set of rings that are larger in size as the symbol of their place of work. They wear a set of rings which have stones of red and purple color. The other peoples of different religions will also have this same thinking. Some peoples also think that red color stones will give them special religious significance because the red color represents traditionality.
At some places or in some societies and in their culture, people think that the wearing of gemstones will give them ambitious looks, no matter whether it is made up of shells or beads. But on the behalf of jewelry, they want to socialize the message about the social status of the people who wear the jewelry.
THE 2 CATEGORIES OF GEMSTONES TYPES
Gemstones are of several types and are specialized by shine, colorful shells, crystals, and stones.
The precious gemstones are highly valued in the current market because of their beauty and hardness. These are the most expensive, in comparison with semi-precious stones. There are four types of precious stones. They are- diamond, ruby, emerald, and sapphire. It is a type of gemstone which is rare to find and is an ambitious precious stone. These are very precious and expensive and are in demand in the current market.
The diamond describes the outline of a stone. Diamonds are available in different shapes like round, emerald, heart, oval, etc. Non-round shaped diamonds are known as fancy shaped diamonds. Diamond reflects the personality and style. People are more interested in round-cut diamonds because they represent 75% of sales.
Emerald is an alluring and magnificent gemstone. Emerald can be founded in Brazil, South Africa, the USA, Afghanistan, and Colombia. Emerald represents the deep green color and has a mixture of durability and rarity. It is the most valuable gemstone. Its flawless stones are very uncommon to find, and they are even more important than diamonds. The deep green color of the stones of Emerald represents many Cultures and Religions.
Ruby is red in color and is one of the hardest materials on Earth. Sapphire is also one of its variety. Aluminum Oxide is also a form of corundum mineral. Red corundum is known as ruby, and all other colors will be known as a sapphire. Ruby has different shades of red color, they are- Brownish red, Bright red, Dark red and Purplish red. Ruby is mostly found in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Burma. The most special thing about Ruby is its precious color, as red color attracts everyone and represents traditionality and red color is incomparable with all the colors. Ruby is also considered the most precious and valuable gemstone on the Earth. Rubies are also found as transparent and of large size, but they are rarer than diamonds. REuby has everything which a precious stone needs to be included in it. Ruby will be the top choice of jewelers.
Sapphire consists of several colors, they are yellow, green, white, purple, blue, pink, brown, orange and sapphire is also found as colorless. Sapphire is mostly found in Thailand, Australia, India, Brazil, and Africa. The mineral class of sapphire is corundum. The chemical and Physical property of sapphire is similar to the properties of the Ruby. If it comes to hardness and durability, then sapphire will be the top choice of the jewelers. Blue is the main color found in sapphire and it makes sapphire, the most precious stone. If sapphire is not in blue color then it is called a fancy gem. The value of Sapphire depends on its color and size when it comes to appearance sapphire has a chemical composition that is similar to natural gems. Sapphire is hard and has durability which is subjected roughly. It is rare to find the sapphire of high quality. Cutting of sapphire needs great skill and high experience of workers. The hardness scale of sapphire is nine. Sapphire is a most desirable gem because of its durability, stability, color, and its hardness. Sapphire is worn every day and is opposed to the desired gemstone. It is most different in shape and is similar to the natural gem.
Semi-precious stones are those stones that are valued because of their beauty and brilliance. Semi-precious gemstones are available in all prices from high to low, and have good value in the market. There are so many semi precious stones, they are citrine, garnet, amethyst, alexandrite, aqua marine, iolite, onyx, opal, pearl, peridot, tanzanite, topaz, and tourmaline.
Alexandrite has dark pale green color, its color can also change in different light forms. The hardness of alexandrite is 8.5 and it has a chrysoberyl type of mineral. It is mainly found in Sri Lanka, USA, Russia, Burma, Madagascar and in Brazil. It was discovered in 1830 in Russia. This stone is very attractive and is rare to find. This stone has the ability to change its color under the forms of light.
Amethyst is purple in color and has hardness of 7. Its mineral class is quartz and this stone is mainly found in Sri lanka, Canada, East Africa, India, Brazil, Australia, Canada, North America, Russia, and in Madagascar. It has been sailed by the peoples that this stone brings the good luck and love in the life of the wearer. Its purple color is rare to find and its deeper color has high value in the market.
It is blue and sea green in color. The hardness of this stone is 7.5 to 8, the mineral class of the stone is Beryl. This stone is mainly found in Russia, Brazil, Afghanistan, USA, India, Madagascar, Zambia, Pakistan and in Nigeria. The name aquamarine is derived from Aqua means Water and Marine means sea. As this stone is hard, so its hardness makes this stone tough and also it protects it from scratches.
This stone has light yellow, amber brown, brilliant orange and lemon yellow color. The hardness scale of this stone is 7, and it has mineral quartz. This stone is mainly found in Russia, Brazil, Madagascar, South America, Argentina, Spain and in scotland. This stone is the variant of topaz. Its lemon yellow color and reddish brown color has high prices in the market. This stone is also known as the tough gemstone because of its durability.
This stone has violet, red, white, light red, yellow, green, black and brown color. The hardness scale of this stone is 6.5 to 7.5 and it has the mineral quartz. This stone is mainly found in Sri lanka, South Africa, Burma, USA, China, India, Australia, Madagascar and in Tanzania. Its name has been derived from the reassembly of the color and shape of the seeds of pomegranate. The colors of this stone are common and are not rare to find in the market. This stone is used as a medical stone and has the power of healing the blood and lung disease. This stone has many different colors which are constituents with each other. This stone has many varieties like Pyrope, almandine, grossularite, rhodolite, essonite, andradite, spessartite, melanite, demantoid, and many others.
This stone has violet blue, yellow white, deep blue and light blue gray color. The stone has a hardness scale of 7 to 7.5 and has mineral cordierite. The stone is mainly found in India, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Mozambique and in Zimbabwe. Mostly this stone is found in violet color and has hues ranging of deep blue, gray blue and purple color. This stone is hard and protects from the blows. The stone is mostly used as the navigation tool by the explorers. The word iolite derives from the greek word in which Ion means violet.
The stone has white, black, red, black with white bands and brown color. It has the hardness scale of 6.5 to 7 and has the mineral Quartz. This stone is mainly found in India, Brazil, Madagascar, United states, sri lanka and in Pakistan. It is a gemstone which is composed with chalcedony. The gemstone is similar to Agate and has several varieties of quartz. Its bands are round and circular in shape and are not consistent with each other. This stone is very popular in Greek and Romans. Onyx which are red, reddish brown and brown in color are called sardonyx. The onyx which has black gemstones and white bands are mostly used in beads and cameos. Onyx is an greek word which means nail and claw, backdrop jewelry is supplied by the onyx.
This stone is gray, white, red, yellow, black and orange in color and sometimes it is also colorless. It has a hardness of 5 to 6.5. This stone is mostly found in Brazil, Australia, Russia, USA, Mali, Japan and in Mexico. It is a very common gemstone and comes in different varieties and has rich colors. It has an extra characteristic which makes this gemstone known as opalescence. The stone has small structures which reflect and bounce the light. This word has been derived from sanskrit word Upala, Greek word Opallios and latin word opalus. All these words have been categorized in precious stone. These gemstones come on the basis of variety and on the place of their occurrence. The red color of the opal is considered the most common as this color is very attractive and people love this color in their jewelry. This red color opal is also very expensive while comparing with the others because of its demand in the market. Opal mostly comes from australian miles, so australia is the major supplier of opals having the percent of 95. It is mostly made from water and sand and has the chemical formula of quartz with water. It is necessary to protect opal from heat and light because it can even dry and can cause cracks. It is less hard while compared with the other stones. It comes in different colors, sizes and in various shapes and is used in many jewelries like rings, earrings, etc.
It has pink, green, yellow, white tinted with cream, brown, blue, black, purple and white color. It has a hardness of 2.5 to 4.5. The stone is mostly china sea and in persian gulf. It is a gem which is produced with prime oysters and covers the foreign objects which have wonderful layers. It takes almost take 5 to 8 years to form. Mostly there are two types of pearls- they are natural pearls, these are formed inside the oysters and cultured pearls, in this the formation of pearls is induced artificially. Natural pearls are more expensive and are rare to find. Pearls are basically white in color and are tinted with green, blue, yellow, black , brown and purple. Pearls come in various shapes, they are round, button, pear, oval, semi round, ringed and drop. Out of all these round pearls are the pearls which are rare to find and are very expensive. Pearl is considered as the living substance and they must be treated with proper care.
It is olive, brownish green and yellow green in color. It has a hardness scale of 6.5 to 7 nad has mineral olivine. This stone is mostly found in Australia, South africa, mexico, sri lanka, tanzania, USA, pakistan, afghanistan, china, burma, and in china. This gemstone is very old and is a very common gemstone. It is the type of olivine mineral. The color of this gemstone is traced by the other elements and has the integral part of the structure. It is mostly used in earrings, rings, pendants and in bracelets. It comes from the border of pakistan and afghanistan. The intensity of this stone depends on the iron contained and is result in the extreme conditions.
It is purple, light violet blue, ultramarine blue and deep blue in color. It has a hardness of 6 to 7 and has mineral quartz. This stone is only found in tanzania. It is a very beautiful gemstone and is the type of zoisite. The stone was discovered in 1967 at merelani hills in tanzania. Tanzania is the only place in the world where tanzanite has been found, and because of this reason the price of this stone is very high while compared with other stones. Tanzanite is new in the market of gemstone and is rare to find. It is very common for its beauty and it is must to wear this stone very carefully as this stone is very precious. Tanzanite can never be cleared in an ultrasonic cleaner.
It is brown, blue, orange, pink, red, white and golden in color and sometimes it is also colorless. It has a hardness of 8 and has mineral topaz. It is mostly found in Sri lanka, brazil, USA, burma, nigeria, mexico and in australia. It is the member of the quartz. This gemstone is mostly found in yellow color. It is considered as the most durable and tough gemstone. It can be cracked easily, so it should be treated very carefully.
It is black, pink, red, grey, green and yellow in color. It has a hardness of 7 to 7.5 and has the quartzite mineral. It is mostly found in Australia, South Africa, Mexico, Sri lanka, tanzania, USA, pakistan, afghanistan, and in Kenya. It is mixed with the crystals of silicate and has changing composition. It comes in different colors and has several names. The stones which have two colors are known as bicolored tourmalines and the stones which have two or more than two colors are known as multi colored tourmalines. This stone has to be worn carefully and needs good care. This stone has a very special place in the world of the gemstones because of its beauty. The word tourmaline comes from singhalese word turamali which means stones with mixed colors. Touramile which has intense red color is also known as rubellite as it changes the color with the source of light.