The metal is a solid material that is shiny and has good conduct of heat and electricity in it. Metal can be easily fused and melted. Metal can be torn into sheets or it can be drawn in wires. The properly polished metals reflect the good light. It is specially used to make jewelry like gold, silver, and platinum, the jewelry made by these are called precious metals. Metal includes various things, such as copper, bronze, and iron. Alloy is the metal that contains a mixture portion of two or more metallic elements and non-metallic elements to dissolve in itself.


Precious metals are basically of three types, they are gold, platinum, and silver. Precious metals are those metals that are used to make jewelry, special ornaments, accessories, temples, idols, war equipment, etc.


Gold is a metal that is considered an extraordinary precious metal, which is so much in demand. It has a non matched combination of physical properties and chemical properties. Gold is the only metal that is yellow in color. Gold is the only metal that is non-reactive amongst all the metals because it does not contain oxide under certain conditions, as it will never attract rust and dust particles on it. Its physical properties have high electric conductivity. It is a good conductor of thermal energy. Gold has been classified into two types of deposits, they are Lode deposits and Placer Deposits.


The purity of gold is measured in Karats. Karat is used to measure the weight of gemstones. The purity and value of gold have been described in karat. Pure gold is soft and durable and can be easily felt, it also alloys different precious metals that are combined with pure gold for enhancing the durability and strength of the gold. Out of all these, twenty-four karats is 100% pure and is very expensive, compared with others. Twenty-four karat gold is also very soft and is kind of pure gold. It doesn’t contain any alloy and is yellow in color with high rich luster. Gold which is of lesser karat contains alloy in it with the mixture of silver, copper, and zinc.

Gold purity for the mostly used Karats:
  • 24 Karat– 24K Gold with 100% purity
  • 22 Karat– 22K Gold with 91.6% purity
  • 18 Karat– 18K Gold with 75% purity
  • 14 Karat– 14K Gold with 58.33% purity
  • 12 Karat– 12K Gold with 50% purity
  • 9 Karat– 9K Gold with 37.50% purity

In pure form, gold has a metallic luster and has a deep yellow color. But 5time when gold has a mixture of alloy with silver, copper, zinc, and other metals, then it appears in different colors like white, green, pink, and sometimes found in blue, black, and purple. Gold has various colors, they are yellow gold, white gold, pink gold, green gold, and other colored golds.
Yellow gold is the gold that is very usable and is timeless. It is mostly alloyed with copper and silver. It is usually found in yellow or in bright rich yellow color.
White gold is somewhere harder than yellow gold as it has a bright white tone.
Pink gold is the gold that is alloyed with copper and sometimes with silver.
Green gold is the gold that is mixed with silver.
Other gold colors are blue and black in color as iron is alloyed with them.

Some examples of alloying formulas to achieve gold color variances are:
  • 18K Yellow Gold:– 75% fine gold, 15% copper, 10% fine silver.
  • 14K Yellow Gold:– 58.5% fine gold, 29% copper, 12.5% fine silver.
  • 18K White Gold:– 75% fine gold, 2 % copper, 17% nickel, 6% zinc.
  • 14K White Gold:– 58.5% fine gold, 23% copper, 12.5% nickel, 6% zinc.
  • 18K Pink/Rose Gold:– 75% fine gold, 22.2% copper, 9.2% fine silver
  • 14K Pink/Rose Gold:– 58.5% fine gold, 32.5% copper, 9.2% fine silver. 


Silver has been come into the market thousands of years ago. It comes along with all three precious metals, gold, and platinum. The silver that is pure in form has a very soft metal and has a lustrous white tone in it. Silver is considered as the bright reflector of the metal, as it can be polished on high shine, as compared with platinum. Silver is harder than platinum and gold, but after having hardness also it is very soft and has its own natural state which is required to mix with hard metal. Silver has the second rank in ductility and malleability. It can be stable in fresh air and water.
Silver contains the highest amount of thermal and electrical conductivity of all the metals. It is produced by copper, gold, zinc, and lead. Silver has been valued as a precious metal and in ancient times it has been used as currency, utensils, and pieces of jewelry. Silver can demolish at the time of exposition to the ozone layer, sulfur, and hydrogen sulfide. Silver is also used in films, in electrical contacts, and in the preparation of mirrors. These days silver has been produced in many countries like Australia, Canada, the United states, and some other countries. Out of all these Mexico is the country, which is the largest producer of silver, it has the contribution of 15% of silver production.
As silver is very soft, so while adding silver to jewelry it is required to mix it with hard metal.


The purity of silver is basically based on the other metals, which are present in the silver in form of alloyed metals. Like some other metals gold and platinum, the purity of silver is expressed in units of thousand parts.


Silver is very soft to use in jewelry as it is the purest form which has 99.99% purity, it is called fine silver.


To give strength and durability to pure silver it is necessary to alloy it with some metals and with some other hard metals. Because of the softness of pure silver, it is not possible to add it with the jewelry, so this process can be done with silver to add in jewelry. Silver is the most used form of silver alloy.


Due to day to day activity or due to daily use of precious metal, they can get dirty and contain dust particles in it. So, it is necessary to take proper care of precious metal jewelry by washing it properly on a regular basis by some professional jeweler. As precious metals are durable and hard in nature, but then also they catch dust particles easily.